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BRAZIL. Pernambuco. 1646 AV 6 Guilders (Florins) Klippe. NGC MS63. 3.77gm. GWC monogram with a period after VI. / Period after Brasil. KM 6.3; Fr.-2, LMB-O4. Dutch West Indies Company. Occupation Coinage. We note that an NGC MS62 example of the typ

1050264 | BRAZIL. Pernambuco. 1646 AV 6 Guilders (Florins) Klippe. NGC MS63. 3.77gm. GWC monogram with a period after VI. / Period after Brasil. KM 6.3; Fr.-2, LMB-O4.

Dutch West Indies Company. Occupation Coinage. We note that an NGC MS62 example of the type realized $64,625 including the Buyer's Premium in April, 2016. Lustrous original choice mint state; one of the finest surviving examples of this exceedingly rare type.


Please use this link to verify the NGC certification number 4625815001




The emergency coinages of 1645-6 and 1654 were struck when the Dutch captaincy of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil was besieged by the Portuguese. Pernambuco was a Portuguese colony from the 16th century and was invaded by the Dutch in 1630 with the intention of establishing a colonial presence in South America for the cultivation of sugar and cotton. For the first two years of the occupation, the Dutch remained cornered in "Fort Orange" and under constant attack by the Portuguese.

The Geoktrooieerde Westindische Compagnie (GWC) was a company created by the Dutch to manage their operations in Pernambuco. In 1632 the Portuguese commander Domingos Ferreira Calabar defected from the Portuguese army and joined the Dutch. With Calabar, the Dutch expanded their position north of Pernambuco adding several important towns. At this time, mostly Spanish and Portuguese coins circulated in Dutch Brazil.

The Dutch brought their own money, the Guilder, which by the mid 1640's was extremely scarce. When the galleon "Zeeland" arrived in the city of Recife with gold from the Dutch post in Guinea, Africa, the GWC took a portion of the precious metal. The gold taken from the "Zeeland" was then used to strike three denominations: 3, 6 and 12 Guilders. Mintmaster Pieter Janssen Bas and die-cutter Jan Bruynsvelt were ordered to strike gold coins equal to 4, 2 and 1 Brazilian ducats on 10th October 1645. There are no records of the exact numbers of coins that were struck in 1645 but scholars estimate between 1500 and 2000 were issued of each denomination. It is important to note that coins struck in Brazil were not legal tender in The United Provinces and any coins coming back to Europe had to be exchanged for Dutch Guilders and then melted; this is why the Brazilian issue was referred to as the Brazilian Ducat. In the colony, any Portuguese or Brazilian found with a Dutch coin ran the risk of being considered a traitor and hanged. Virtually all of these Dutch pieces left in Brazil would have been melted after 1654 after the Dutch were finally ousted from South America.

Pernambuco and other Dutch possessions in Brazil finally succumbed to a revolt that allowed the Portuguese to recapture much of the territory in 1654.
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